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Which documents are considered evidence?

Evidence is any matter of fact and is submitted or presented to the Court by the parties, agencies, organizations or other individuals during the litigation process or is collected by the Court according to the order and procedures stipulated in the Code of Civil Procedure. It is used by the Court as the basis for ascertaining the objective details of the case as well as whether or not the parties’ claims or defenses are grounded and lawful.

Documents are considered as evidence if collected from the following sources:

    • Readable, audible or visible materials and electronic data.
    • Materials.
    • The parties’ testimony.
    • The witnesses’ testimony.
    • Appraisal results.
    • On-site appraisal records.
    • Property valuation and price appraisal results.
    • Documents recording legal events and acts and created by a person with official functions.
    • Notarized or certified documents.
    • Other sources as prescribed by law.

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